Follow the instructions relevant to the assignment question, as well as the information provided in this brief in order to complete the assignment successfully.
Your assignment should include:
- Questions (on a separate page)
- Answers to questions
- Bibliography (list of sources)
Marks will be deducted for poor spelling and plagiarism (poor referencing).
IMPORTANT: Make sure you have a copy of your assignment. While we record submission dates, sometimes assignments do get lost. You will not be penalised for such occurrences, but we will need an additional copy of your work.
The following standard penalties apply to all assignments. If there is any variation in this, it will be advised by the ALA.
Late: 2 marks/day
Plagiarism: Subject Failure/expulsion
Marks will also be deducted for:
- Poor referencing (if or as specified in the assignment)
- Poor spelling
- Non-typed assignments
- Not adhering to specified format
- Not adhering to word count
- Not adhering to any other instructions of the assignment
- Lack of conclusion (if required)
Other penalties or requirements may apply and will be detailed on an assignment-by- assignment basis. This is dependent on the objectives of the assignment and the criteria on which the assignment is to be assessed. It is the aim of the ALA that assignments submitted over the course of the diploma/advanced diploma should have varying requirements so as to reflect the varying requirements of the business world. As a result, marking will reflect these requirements.
The Australian Logistics Academy takes a serious view of plagiarism (copying).
While most students complete assignments very well, it is important to understand that the work submitted must be your own.
The following guide has been assembled to assist you with your work.
Ensure that you use referencing when necessary. If you are not sure about report writing and referencing, check under the subject forum section on the ALA Learning-room.com web site (http://ala-access.com).
What is Plagiarism?
Plagiarism, or copying and use of another personâs work without proper acknowledgment (referencing), is not permitted. It is also not permitted for anyone to allow another person to copy their work for the purposes of assessment under another name.
Plagiarism may take several forms. Any of the following, without full acknowledgment of the original source, counts as plagiarism:
- Direct duplication, by copying (or allowing to be copied) another’s work, whether from a book, article, Web site, another
studentâs assignment, etc.;
- Paraphrasing (rewording) of anotherâs work closely, with minor changes but with the essential meaning, form and/or progression of ideas maintained;
- Piecing together sections of the work of others into a new whole. This includes cutting and pasting sentences or paragraphs
from many sources and putting it into a single document for the purpose of assessment;
- Submitting your own work which has already been submitted for assessment purposes in another subject;
- Producing assignments in conjunction (groups) with other people (e.g. another student, a tutor), which should be your own independent work.
We hope this assists in your understanding of plagiarism and what is required in your assignments concerning referencing and copying.
You have been requested to use examples in your assignment. You may use examples from your own company, or you may choose to use other examples from magazines or the internet. A list of possible sources of information is below. Remember not to copy word for word from your source, and to include the exact reference information in your bibliography (also known as a reference list).
Note that often the online version of magazines is limited, but there may be archives where you can search past editions and perhaps order reprints online.
- The Australian (newspaper) (www.theaustralian.com.au)
- Business Review Weekly (http://www.brw.com.au/)
- Logistics Magazine (http://www.logisticsmagazine.com.au/)
- Supply Chain Review (http://www.supplychainreview.com.au/)
- Time (Magazine) Also available in an online edition (Time Magazine & Time Magazine Asia)
- Wall Street Journal (Magazine) Also available in a limited online edition (Asian Edition & US Edition)
- Forbes (Magazine) (http://www.forbes.com/home_asia/)
- Harvard Asia Pacific Review (Magazine) (http://hcs.harvard.edu/~hapr/)
- The Sydney Morning Herald (newspaper) (http://www.smh.com.au)
- Channel News Asia (Television/Cable and Website) (http://www.channelnewsasia.com/)
Assignment Preparation Guide
The following is a guide for assignments.
- Assignments should be typed on A4 size, double-spaced, with at least a 2cm margin on each side.
- Sketches, diagrams, charts etc should be clear and appropriately labelled.
- Pages should be clearly numbered, and the student’s name should appear on each page.
- Assignments should have a standard cover sheet, which provides the student’s name and student number, subject code, subject title, lecturer’s name (as appropriate), the due date, the date submitted, word count, and additional information as required. See the cover sheet information below for a version that can be copy & pasted into your assignment.
- Students should keep a duplicate copy of each assignment submitted.
- Assignments must be submitted on time. Late submission will not be accepted without penalty unless accompanied by appropriate documentation (e.g. a doctor’s certificate), providing adequate reasons for the late submission.
- Assignments should be properly referenced, using an accepted referencing system consistently, and accompanied by a list of
- Quotations should be kept to an appropriate level (not more than one paragraph of text should be quoted at a time) and should provide details of page numbers in the reference.
- Proper acknowledgment is essential whenever the work of another writer is being quoted or used in an assignment. Failure to do so may constitute the serious offense of plagiarism. Severe penalties may be imposed by the ALA on students found guilty of plagiarism.
- The ALA Constitution includes the following: … “a student is guilty of misconduct if the student: cheats, or acts dishonestly in any other way, or assists any other student to cheat… at or in connection with any examination, test, assignment; (or) in an attempt to gain academic credit, plagiarises the work of another…”
Cover Sheet Information for Email/Online Submission
Please include the following information on the first page of your assignment if you choose to submit your assignments electronically by uploading to The Learning Room website.
Please make sure you include the typed statement concerning the assignment being your own work.
Cut and paste the following into your email and fill in the required information.
I declare that all material in this assignment is my own work.
[type your name and the date]
A Concise Guide to the HARVARD System of Referencing
WHY DO YOU NEED TO REFERENCE?
When writing, it is necessary to acknowledge the sources of information and ideas that you have incorporated in your assignments. Failure to do this thoroughly may result in accusations of plagiarism: this is the academic equivalent of stealing (because by not acknowledging someone else’s work, you are parading it as your own). Plagiarism is taken very seriously by the ALA and may result in expulsion from the ALA’s programmes.
Referencing is not only about acknowledging other people’s work: accurate referencing and lists of references are beneficial when researching a topic as they allow the reader to follow up information and read further into the area. In a sense, references provide readers with clues to help them explore different avenues of a topic. This aspect of referencing will become more valuable to you as you progress in your studies.
There is a correct procedure that must be followed when referencing and using footnotes. Not complying with these set techniques and format will most likely result in loss of marks.
With citation there is no one commonly accepted form BUT you must be consistent within the same essay or document.
When writing an essay it is easiest to reference as you go, making sure you are writing down all relevant information. This will save hours trying to find the source again in the library.
THE HARVARD SYSTEM
The Harvard system makes use of short references within the body of the text. It is supplemented by a detailed list of references at the end of the text, which provides all the information necessary to find the source material. In-text references include the author and year of publication, and where necessary the page number(s). For example:
Owners of a firm are regarded as external parties
(Martin 1988, p. 7)
You will see variations on how the information in brackets is presented. For example the ‘p.’ for page is often omitted, and preceded by a colon, that is: (Martin 1988: 7). The first example follows the guidelines set out in the Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers, 5th edn, 1995, p. 149. The important thing to remember is to be consistent in your punctuation format, and to check with your lecturer as to his or her preference.
The brief in-text references must be supplemented by a detailed list of references at the end of your assignment. Sources are listed
alphabetically by the surname of the author. The format is as follows:
Martin, C. 1988, 2nd edn, An Introduction to
Accounting, McGraw-Hill, Sydney.
The previous format follows that specified by the 1995 edition of the Style Manual. Expect to find variations in the placing of commas, brackets around the year of publication, and order of place of publication and the publisher’s name. Regardless of these minor differences in format, the minimum information for each reference entry is:
- The name of the author(s), (Martin C.)
- Year of publication, (1988)
- Edition of the book if it is a reprint, (2nd edn)
- Title of the book in italics, (An Introduction to
- Publisherâs name and place of publication, (McGraw-Hill,
For Journal or Magazine entries the format is as follows:
Boer, G., 1984, ‘Solutions in search of a problem:
The case of budget variance investigation models’, Journal of
Accounting Literature, Vol. 3, pp. 47-69.
For journal entries the minimum information is:
- The author’s name, (Boer, G.,)
- The year of publication, (1984)
- The title of the publication enclosed within single quotation
marks, (‘Solutions in search of a problem: The case of budget
variance investigation models’)
- The title of the journal in italics, (Journal of
- The volume number or month or publication, (vol. 3)
- The page numbers of the article, (pp. 47-69)
HOW DO YOU QUOTE SOMEONE?
The material you cite in your assignment might be a paraphrase from someone else’s work, or a direct quote. In the case of a direct quotation there are a number of conventions you need to observe. Firstly, the words of the original should be copied exactly, and placed within double inverted commas. For example:
Thus, if this statement is to be included in the annual reports it will “enhance the awareness, comprehension and acceptance of value added by workers” (Morley, 1978, p. 21).
The second convention to observe is the placing of square brackets around words that are not in the original quote but are necessary to the sentence to aid clarity. For example, in the above example from a student essay, the reader won’t know what this statement refers to. An informative quote from the student assignment would therefore be:
Thus, if [a Value Added Statement] is to be
included in the annual reports it will “enhance the awareness,
comprehension and acceptance of value added by workers”
(Morley, 1978, p. 21).
The other two conventions related to quoting which are necessary to observe are (i) the use of ellipsis marks (…) to show that some part of the quote has been omitted, and (ii) indentation of quotes that are longer than three lines. As longer quotes are offset from the main text and indented, it is not necessary to place them in quotation marks. Indented quotations are often written in a smaller point. For example:
Many small businesses are owned by one person. No
particular legal formalities are required to commence operations,
although it is common practice to set up a business bank account and
operate under a business name, which must, in certain circumstances,
be registered. Amounts contributed to the business by the owner are
This section on referencing has been very brief, and no doubt it will not answer all your referencing questions. Keep in mind that every article you read for your subject will incorporate references. Use these articles as a resource to assist you in improving your
referencing by taking note of how the author incorporates the reference into the text in terms of the mechanics (colons, brackets,
order of information etc.), and more importantly when you need to include a reference.
For a complete account of referencing guidelines see the
Australian Government Publishing Service Style Manual for Authors,
Editors and Printers, 5th edn, 1995.
For help in essay and report writing see, Woodward-Kron, R. 1996, Writing in Commerce, University of Newcastle, Newcastle. This is a clear and concise book providing direction for students who are beginning to write essays for school or study.
Citation of Electronic Sources
The basic component of the reference citation is:
Author’s Lastname, Author’s Firstname. “Title
of Document.” Title of Complete Work (if applicable). Version or
File Number, if applicable. Document date or date of last revision
(if different from access date). Protocol and address, access path or
directories (date of access).
The following provide specific examples, using the format above. Please bear in mind, however, that, like the Internet itself, the information sources are in a constant state of flux and, therefore, this work will also need to change as the sites themselves proliferate to the new era of electronic print.
WWW (World Wide Web) sites
Available via Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari, Chrome and other web browsers.
To cite files available for viewing/downloading via the World Wide Web, give the author’s name (if known), the full title of the work in quotation marks, the title of the complete work if applicable in italics, the document date if known and if different from the date accessed, the full http address, and the date of visit.
Burka, Lauren P. “A Hypertext History of
Multi-User Dimensions.” The MUDdex. 1993.
http://www.apocalypse.org/pub/u/lpb/muddex/essay/ (5 Dec. 1994).
Email, Listserv and Newsgroup citations
Give the author’s name or alias (if known), the subject line from the posting in quotation marks, the date of the message if different from the date accessed, and the address of the listserv or newsgroup, along with the date of access in parentheses. For personal e-mail listings, omit the e-mail address.
Bruckman, Amy S. “MOOSE Crossing Proposal.”
firstname.lastname@example.org (20 Dec. 1994). Seabrook, Richard H. C.
“Community and Progress.” cybermind@jefferson.
village.virginia.edu (22 Jan. 1994).
Thomson, Barry. “Virtual Reality.”
Personal e-mail (25 Jan. 1995).
Walker, Janice R., and Taylor, Todd, The Columbia Guide to Online
Style, NY: Columbia UP (in press).